Scientific studies indicate that approximately 25% of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions come from agriculture. At the crop level, global warming leads to changes in the phenology (study of the phases of the botanical cycle of the crop) of many species.
Changes occur in the agronomic phases, which are affected by seasonal and interannual variations in climate. For example, the early onset of flowering in periods that are not optimal for this, advancement of the sprouting and ripening of fruits and their size, sugar content for industrial use, vitamin value, and so on.
The case of apples, one of the three most consumed fruits
Why apples? Apple (Malus Domestica) is an important and popular fruit that is one of the three most consumed fruits on the planet. The average consumption in the world reached in 2018 approximately 9 kg / capita (FAOSTAT).
Climate change has had an impact on the alteration of phenology in apple cultivation. In different regions of Europe and Japan, the flowering date has advanced throughout the last decade, towards suboptimal periods from the physiological point of view, increasing the incidence of pests and reducing productivity.
Research conducted in Japan concludes that the taste and texture of some of the most popular apple varieties have been modified due to early flowering and higher temperatures during fruit ripening.