World almond, walnut, and pistachio production and trade is concentrated in a handful of countries, with the United States holding a commanding position in terms of production and exports. Marketing year 2020/21 was used as the reference year for comparisons of commodity volumes.
Almond production as well as trade was dominated by the United States, followed by a modest contribution from Australia. Walnuts were primarily produced in and exported by China, the United States, and Chile. Pistachio production was concentrated in the United States, Turkey, and Iran, while exports were dominated by the United States and Iran.
Import markets were more diverse as compared to producers and exporters, although almonds, walnuts, and pistachios relied on the European Union as a major destination.
Top almond markets included the European Union, India, and China, with 30 other countries importing notable quantities. Top walnut markets included the European Union, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with 28 other importing countries. Major pistachio markets included China, the European Union, and India, with 32 other importing countries.