According to official data of the Agricultural Food and Fisheries Information Service (SIAP), between 2010 and 2015 the national mango production increased by 1.7%, going from 1,632,000 tons in 2010 to 1,775,000 tons in 2015; meanwhile, Colima's production decreased by 8.4%, going from 60,844 tons to only 39,292 tons in the same period of analysis.
In 2015 the leading mango producing states, in terms of volume, were: Guerrero (20%), Sinaloa (17%), Nayarit (14%), Chiapas (12%) and Michoacan (9%), which together accounted for (72%) of the total domestic production (281 million tons); meanwhile, the state of Colima, which produced 39,292 tons, i.e. 2% of the national total, is the country's tenth biggest producers of mangoes.
The main varieties produced at the national level include: Ataulfo, Creole, Manila, Haden, Kent, Tommy Atkins, Irwin, Sensation, Van Dick, and Palmer, among others.
The historical data so far this century shows that Colima's mango production has had a -3.8% negative annual growth rate, as it has fallen from 70,363 tons in 2000 to 39,292 in 2015.
The state's mango production has experienced a downward trend in the last six years, only achieving 39,000 tons in 2015, according to official data from the SIAP. Meanwhile, the cultivated area went from 3,803.90 hectares in 2010 to 3,177.21 hectares in 2015. In the same period, the average yield decreased by 23%, going from 16.00 tons / hectare to 12.37 tons / hectare, mainly because of the high incidence of diseases and climate change, which not only lowered yields, but also helped increase production costs.
The main producing municipalities in terms of value are: Manzanillo ($ 72.7 million pesos), Tecoman ($ 31.4 million pesos), Armeria ($ 8.8 million pesos), Colima ($ 2.6 million pesos), and Coquimatlán ($ 2.1 million); the remaining (3) municipalities contribute ($ 1.9 million pesos); and the total production value reached $ 119.5 million pesos in 2015.
Colima produces five varieties of mango. The main varieties produced are the Ataulfo, Manila, and red varieties, as is generally known. Much of the volume produced is destined for the local, national, or export market.
The quality of the mango is highly variable due to the diversity of technologies and production systems applied in its harvest and post-harvest, which are essential to the product's final quality for consumers. According to estimates, the state loses 10% to 15% of its production in its marketing and transportation; the activities that cause the most losses in production are: improper handling in the cut, improper collection in the orchards, inadequate transportation to the distribution centers, and a lack of management and conservation technologies.
Most of the state produces non-international mango varieties; the local sector has shown little appetite to venture into major international markets. It has a clear international competitiveness problem (atomization of producers, lack of implementation of technological packages, high cost of inputs, difficult to use existing financial instruments, low yields, post-harvest loss, underdeveloped agribusiness). In addition, the state's health and traceability models are not sufficiently established; the transport infrastructure (roads, port, logistics), and cold storage network are poor, which increases costs and affects the products quality. There is little focus on innovation, very poor statistical information, weak institutional coordination (different priorities) regarding the development of mango production, and there is a lack of business players for the international market.
There is a growing market for fresh and processed mango both at the national and international levels, as the world's mango demand is increasing. The sector can add value to the fruit by processing it and there are possibilities of further industrialization. In addition, there is an increased demand in emerging countries (with spending power) so the mango is becoming a new business option. The sector can also structure new export schemes taking advantage of trade agreements with Asia, Europe and South America; redesign its phytosanitary campaigns against the fruit fly, and take advantage of the increasing accessibility to enter new markets.
Program to boost production
To fully take advantage of the mango and its derivatives it is urgent that the industry's authorities work together with producers, packers, exporters, traders, researchers, academics, and professional associations to develop a strategic program to boost production and exports of Colima's mango. This program must be created as part of the 2016-2021 National Development Plan and schemes of public-private partnership projects regulated by the new Law on public-private Partnerships in the State of Colima.
Enrique Álvarez Navarro
Telefóno: 01 (312) 159 02 35
Móvil: 312 183 95 43
Colima, Col. México